The Institute for Economic Democracy

Economic Decmoracy:
The Political Struggle for the 21st Century (2nd Edition)

by J.W. Smith

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6. Suppressing Freedom of Thought in a Democracy

Quick links to chapters:

  1. Introduction
  2. Free Enterprise Capital Accumulation
  3. The Violent Accumulation of Capital
  4. Imposing a Belief System
  5. The defeat of Napoleon
  6. World Wars, Trade Wars
  7. Suppressing Freedom
  8. The World Breaking Free
  9. Suppressing the Break for Economic Freedom
  10. Creating Enemies for the Masses to Prevent Democratic Choice
  11. The IMF/World Bank/GATT/NAFTA/
  12. Emerging Corporate Mercantilism
  13. Impoverishing Labor and, Eventually, Capital
  14. Unequal Trades in Agriculture
  15. Developing World Debt
  16. The Economic Multiplier
  17. Japan
  18. Asian Post-World War II Development
  19. Capital Destroying Capital
  20. A New Hope for the World
  21. Sustainable Development
  22. Sustainable World Development
  23. Equal Free Trade vs Unequal Free Trade
  24. World peace through Democratic-Cooperative Capitalism
  25. Eliminating Subtle-Monopoly of Land
  26. Eliminating Subtle-Monopoly of Technology
  27. Eliminating Subtle-Monopoly of Money
  28. Eliminating Subtle-Monopoly of Information
  29. Media to Empower the Powerless
  30. Conclusion
  31. Bibliography

"The great masses of the people in the very bottom of their hearts tend to be corrupted rather than purposely or consciously evil ... therefore ... they more easily fall a victim to a big lie than to a little one, since they themselves lie in little things, but would be ashamed of lies that were too big.

-Adolph Hitler from Mein Kampf

As few realize the true dimension of covert violence and intrigue that has gone into controlling our, and others, thoughts in a "free" society, and thus may question that these events took place, we provide a brief outline, heavily cited, of how the minds of free people were controlled to make them unaware of, ignore, or accept, covert activities and what can only be described as wholesale terrorism.

The CIA's "Mighty Wurlitzer" Inoculated America, and Much of the World, Against Philosophies of Full and Equal Rights

Through the expansion of empires in the nineteenth century, the world had become the "countryside" for the European centers of capital. The old imperial nations broke themselves battling over the world's wealth in World Wars I and II. America, the newest imperial-center-of-capital, was at that time the only intact center of capital. The frightened leaders of the old imperial nations ultimately handed the baton to the United States to keep the entire world from gaining their economic freedom, and America has done that job well.

The risk to the imperial world was primarily the loss of the former colonial world and its precious natural resources. To maintain control of those economies it was essential that the influence of the once rapidly developing former Soviet Union be contained. If the Soviet Union successfully developed, that success would be a beacon for historians, social scientists, and intellectuals worldwide-that history would be written, those economic and political philosophies would be followed-and controlling the rest of the world would be impossible.

Even if a small country like Cuba, gained their freedom and their living standards rose, the rest of the world would demand their freedom. Hence the otherwise incomprehensible destruction by the world's most powerful nations of small weak nations such as Korea, Vietnam, Chile, Nicaragua, Angola, Mozambique, and the Congo who came close to gaining their freedom. The drumbeat of the West being under imminent threat of attack by these nations was a strategy-of-tension so that the citizens of these powerful nations would support the extremely violent and terrorizing suppression of those countries break for freedom.[116]

As the Cold War was being won, Peter Coleman, author of Liberal Conspiracy, gained complete access to the archives of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, an American and European writers' support group that had been covertly established by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The path to easy publication of books and articles throughout the "free" world was through this worldwide, CIA-orchestrated and funded strategy-of-tension creating the belief within Western populations that they were about to lose their freedom to totalitarian dictators:

Five years after their victory in 1945, the Western democracies were about to lose the battle for Europe, but this time to Stalinist totalitarianism instead of Nazis. To combat this prospect, an intellectual guerrilla group was formed: over one hundred European and American writers and intellectuals met in Berlin to establish the Congress for Cultural Freedom to resist the Kremlin's sustained assault on Western and liberal values. During the 1950s the Congress spread throughout the world, creating a network of affiliated national committees, a worldwide community of liberal intellectuals fiercely committed to democratic governance, but supported by grants which, unknown to most of them, originated in the Central Intelligence Agency. Through the Congress's influential publications, conferences, and international protests, it kept the issues of Soviet totalitarianism and liberal anti-Communism alive in a largely hostile environment....It was finally dissolved in 1967 amid the revelations of its funding by the CIA.[117]

Frances Stoner Saunders, in The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters, discusses this further:

Whether they liked it or not, whether they knew it or not, there were few writers, poets, artists, historians, scientists or critics in post-war Europe whose names were not in some way linked to this covert enterprise....Defining the Cold War as a 'battle for men's minds' it stockpiled a vast arsenal of cultural weapons: journals, books, conferences, seminars, art exhibitions, concerts, awards....Endorsed and subsidized by powerful institutions, this non-Communist group became as much a cartel in the intellectual life of the West as Communism had been a few years earlier (and [since it was the intellectual left that was being targeted for control through the establishment of a Non-Communist left] it included many of the same people)....It spied on tens of thousands of Americans, harassed democratically elected governments abroad, plotted assassinations, denied these activities to Congress, and, in the process, elevated the art of lying to new heights.[118]

According to Frances Stoner Saunders and others cited, covert coordination of the writings of Western authors-such as George Orwell (including the CIA producing movies of his books), Hannah Arendt, Irving Kristol (the CIA buying 50,000 of his books for free distribution worldwide), Isaiah Berlin, Sidney Hook, Arthur Koestler, Henry Luce, Bertrand Russell, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Robert Conquest and Peter Coleman (who wrote the above cited exposure) and the simultaneous sabotage of media they could not control (such as Ramparts Magazine ,the Nation and the New Statesman of which only a few were able to avoid bankruptcy from loss of their readers)-was only one of the many "black ops" and covert actions, occasionally breaking out into overt actions, which became the hidden history of the Cold War.

That hidden history was first exposed by the Church and Pike Congressional Committees in 1975 and 1976 and by many good researchers and reporters since. To carry out its strategies-of-tension, the CIA had its own wire service and its own publishing companies. It set up and supported magazines, newspapers, and radio stations with solidly biased and beholden editorial staffs. It established the largest news conglomerate in West Germany and other major media in many countries (including Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, Voice of America, roughly 100 transmitters each, and many lesser-known regional radio stations beamed to Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa). Canned Cold War editorials were prepared and sent to large and small newspapers all over the world. These editorials were available for any editor to restructure as his or her own creation. Large independent think tanks were established, funded, and staffed with ideological supporters, as were think tanks within universities.

Placing buzzword labels upon people, others are bad (communist dictatorship, subversives, extremists), and we are good (freedom, democracy) was the foundation of this, and all other, social-control-belief-systems. All this was necessary to create fear among the populations of the wealthy nations (a strategy-of-tension) so they would support a policy of worldwide suppression and oppression under the cover of protecting freedoms and rights.

CIA-established and -funded foundations were only one of the many financial conduits that provided the funds for this immense operation, money was passed covertly through over 170 major, seemingly independent, foundations-as well as the Marshall Plan and the American Federation of Labor. The CIA's covert propaganda budget throughout the Cold War exceeded that of UPI, AP, and Reuters even as those news services were the unwitting primary carriers of its carefully crafted views of the world. In fact, control of the thoughts of Americans and the world through control of media content was the CIA's biggest covert action expenditure. That the CIA offered reporters news scoops in exchange for publication of fraudulent articles tells us some of the leading columnists in the world were planting this nonsense. If they were not already successful, their scoops would be so sensational they would rise quickly to the top. In fact, according to Frances Saunders, well-known Washington columnists such as Joe and Stewart Alsop and Walter Lippman were close dinner and social friends with the managers-of-state and the CIA leaders (such as William Colby, Frank Wisner, and other managers of the CIA) creating this propaganda, were in on the ground floor of cold war planning. Those columnists knew well that the "Grand Strategy" was to massively misinform the nation that they were under the dire threat of military assault, cooperated with spreading that misinformation, and they never breathed a word. The news media was scandalized when the Pike Committee exposed that over 400 journalists were in the direct employ of the CIA. Of course, "A central feature of this program was to advance the claim that it [propaganda] did not exist."[119]

Here is how the propagandizing of the so-called free world that they were under threat of a military assault was accomplished: CIA leaders moved in the same social circles as-and were personal friends of-leading columnists, newspaper editors, and media owners. With the base of fraudulent books and articles all in place for researchers, the CIA would leak dramatic stories (missile gaps, Soviet aggression, threats from rogue terrorist nations, or whatever had been decided was crucial for the masses to believe to gain support for any current suppression of the colonial world's break for freedom). When these media leaders published those extreme threats to national security and it was passed over all the wire services, virtually every medium in the nation would publish this CIA wordsmith's nonsense on their front pages as lead articles. All follow up interviews were channeled to prepared spokespersons and the threat is confirmed. In one day, virtually the entire nation and much of the world will faithfully believe the latest creation of what, in final analysis, is little more than carefully crafted propaganda. After many incremental propaganda blitzes of these strategies-of-tension, the masses would fully support whatever military campaign or covert activity was on the agenda of the State Department/National Security Council.

Below the elite group of misinformers were accredited reporters who remained accredited only by parroting what was fed them. No one-except those ideologically safe media (personal and social friends of CIA managers)-knew this was created propaganda and all accredited reporters were straitjacketed. To challenge any primary social-control-belief while the whole nation believed fully in these threats would be career and social suicide. Thus, there were no reporters to seriously challenge such silly notions as El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, or Cuba being serious military threats to America.

With the "free" media saturated with those articles carefully crafted to control the masses view of the world, propaganda became, and is still being written as, history. This can be seen in the daily news being nearly identical in today's newspapers and newscasts while only a small portion of the world, national and local news is reported. These media do not have reporters checking if those are facts, they only have reporters rushing to be the first to report what they are told.

Once a primary social-control-belief was in every newspaper and newscast in the nation as fact and every applicable organ of government backing it, no reporter or editor would dare challenge that report. With the masses firmly believing that they were under the dire threats these reports proclaimed, any media that would dare stand up would not only lose readers en masse, they would lose their lucrative corporate advertising and, though this will vehemently be denied, those editors would lose their jobs.

The powerful were, and are, writing history to maintain control of the thoughts of the masses well into the future (the intention is forever). Unless the process is fully exposed, sincere researchers will forever be using these published accounts as sources to write history. In addition, intelligence agencies of most major nations were simultaneously producing supporting propaganda. In fact, the British and all other empires had been practicing just such black-ops to protect their empires for centuries and the OSS and CIA were taught by Britain's MI6. The intelligence services of all nations of what is now one allied empire then cooperated in misinforming their citizens to create tension and gain their backing supposedly for suppressing tyrants but in reality to maintain control of the world.[f] This orchestrated propaganda machine was eventually described by agents of the CIA itself as its "Mighty Wurlitzer." [120]

The route to being well-published and well-known was through parroting this intelligence service created view of the world. Certainly most writers and reporters had no direct contact with the Congress for Cultural Freedom, but Cold War hysteria created by the intelligence services and government press releases left them no option but to parrot the same line. Thus, almost every political or economic writer and columnist was busy creating the literature/historical base to contain the Soviet Union, suppress the former colonial world's break for freedom, and thus protect the current power structure's control of world resources and markets. The process of controlling what is thought and what is written is today funded by conservative foundations, as addressed above, and is even more effective than when controlled primarily by intelligence services.

These gross fabrications and crafted propaganda provided a firm foundation for the social-control beliefs of the Cold War and are now not only a major part of Western literature and history; they are Western literature and history. It is to the credit of conscientious academics that they attempted to stand up and tell the American people the truth, but they were quickly silenced by McCarthyism, the House Un-American Activities Committee, and the massive weight of the social-control-beliefs being imposed.

The destruction of the careers of 300-plus blacklisted Hollywood stars and writers-as was pointed out during the March 21, 1999, Academy Awards when the recipient of an Oscar was acknowledged by all major media as having testified against his friends to the House Un-American Activities Committee-provides just a hint of the thousands of professors and intellectuals whose careers were destroyed, badly damaged, or severely restricted. As these conscientious voices were silenced, the careers of academics, reporters, and writers parroting the misinformation of the CIA's "Mighty Wurlitzer" soared. Little did most academics know that, just like the hard right (Aryan Nations, Posse Commitatus, John Birch Society, etc.) nonsense, which all respectable academics know better than to source, imperial nations were creating their own reality, reporters and academics were unwittingly recording this misinformation as reality, and then they were referencing each other as authoritative sources.

Control of the masses required control of governments through control of information. Ralph McGehee was a career CIA agent who spent the last few years of his career studying CIA archives. He concluded:

The CIA is not now nor has it ever been a central intelligence agency. It is the covert action arm of the President's foreign policy advisers. In that capacity it overthrows or supports foreign governments while reporting "intelligence" justifying those activities. It shapes its intelligence ... to support presidential policy. Disinformation is a large part of its covert action responsibility, and the American people are the primary target of its lies.[121]

To target the American people, American intelligence services must simultaneously target those the masses look up to for designing and interpreting our world, Congress, academia, and the media. McGehee claimed that "He has never once seen a CIA official tell the truth to Congress. Instead comes a steady stream of lies."[122] Even the information going to those with security clearances is controlled. This solves the mystery, as addressed in part above, of why good people in the American government approve such violence and then deny any knowledge of U.S. involvement. It also explains why academics and other intellectuals are so misled and, in turn, mislead the masses. The "Mighty Wurlitzer" was established to write history to protect power brokers as they imposed enormous violence upon the world to protect their wealth and power, those outright lies and distorted histories are recorded as real history, and there is little else in the historical record. Perhaps this is true of all empires but, if that pattern of social control through strategies-of-tension, covert actions, military power, and then writing history through distorting the record is ever to be broken, we must recognize and analyze this process.

For the first stage of the analysis, study a globe. Note the enormous expanse of the world where most of the world's natural resources are located, which is undeveloped and impoverished, and which consumes only fourteen percent of the world's resources. Then note the small area of the world which has few resources, which is developed, wealthy and powerful and which consumes eighty-six percent of the world's resources.[123] The resources which produce the wealth and power of the imperial centers are primarily in, and thus properly owned by, the impoverished undeveloped world. The secret that can never be acknowledged is that-if the impoverished world had access to finance capital, technology, and markets-it is they who would be wealthy.

Controlling the Flow of Information Worldwide Required Control of Nations on the Periphery of Empire

After World War II, colonial nations were declaring their full independence. Many were electing democratic governments and hoping to emulate the United States' economic successes and freedoms. The loss of the resources in their former colonies meant impoverishment for the war-shattered historic imperial-centers-of-capital. For the American led coalition of empires to regain control it was crucial that the educational institutions and media of emerging countries not be permitted unbiased observation and critiques of the battle between the superpowers or their own continued suppression. This meant that newly free democracies had to be covertly overthrown and puppet governments put in place (Indonesia, Iran, Chile, Guatemala, Nicaragua, etc.).

Even though many of the colonial oppressed fought hard and suffered tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of casualties, most were unable to break free. Massive military and financial support was put behind puppet dictators to prevent loss of those countries by the vote. All this was accepted by the citizens of the imperial centers because the information reaching them through the CIA's "Mighty Wurlitzer" essentially reversed reality: dictators were described as "authoritarian governments" while fledgling democracies, defending themselves against overthrow by CIA covert destabilizations, were portrayed as "dictatorships."

Freedom and democracy are taught, preached, and believed in fully throughout the world. So suppression of these breaks for freedom could only be accomplished under a cover of "free" elections. As the progressive leaders of the impoverished of those countries could easily explain true freedom to their followers, controlling the elections required funding the campaigns of current dictators and even establishing reactionary newspapers.

But not even these massive efforts could fool the people into voting against their own best interests. No matter how idealistic these second-and third-tier planners were, it was obvious to them that those standing up and preaching freedom for their countries had to be eliminated. Talking to ex-CIA agent Ralph McGehee, addressed above, I said, "America orchestrated those death squads." His instant response, "Of course we did." As I write this, December 3, 2001-President Vicente Fox of Mexico has admitted that Mexico kidnapped, tortured, and murdered, hundreds of "leftists" during the sixties and seventies. Leftists, of course, are any other than the established political powers who may gain a political following.

Because they were so thoroughly indoctrinated into the enemy-belief-system, idealistic people-no different than you and I-established and orchestrated death squads which-counting family members and closest confidants who perished-assassinated thousands of teachers, professors, labor leaders, cooperative leaders, and church leaders, the budding Washingtons, Jeffersons, Madisons, Lenins, Gandhis, and Martin Luther Kings of those countries. Then, to protect this exceptionally violent suppression of freedom and democracy by imperial-centers-of-capital, the "Mighty Wurlitzer" of the imperial nations created the image to the world that these primarily nonviolent, patriotic, and courageous people were terrorists and a threat to the world.

Those insurgents battling for freedom, who would be praised as heroes if they had been fighting for America's revolution in 1776, were dealt with by U.S.-supported military forces. Civilians, whose only threat was a potential win at the ballot box, were dealt with by CIA-orchestrated death squads. One marvels at the courage of these people to keep standing up for the freedom and rights of their country and their people when they knew their name would go on a death squad list. One cannot help but notice that those on the periphery of trading empires are fighting for freedom just as the suppressed on the periphery of empire have fought for freedom from the imperial centers throughout all history.

With U.S. military forces in over 100 countries around the world, even though the Cold War is theoretically over and the next nine largest military powers are tentatively allied with America, it is impossible for America to deny it is an empire or that, with their military and trading allies, they form an allied empire. The evidence is indisputable. Where America was originally only one of the smaller colonial empires, today-along with the allied centers of capital-it is, although somewhat fragile due to internal contradictions, the largest and most powerful empire in history. Of course, "trading empires" is a commonly used term but these trading empires, expanded and protected by military might so as to lay claim to the wealth of the periphery, are true empires in the deepest and most original meaning of the word. Today's empires are only hiding under the cover of new names (free trade) and new slogans (peace, freedom, justice, rights, and majority rule). We address in depth the evolution of modern world trade and how inequalities of trade are just as fundamental to today's trade as they were when the secret of "plunder by trade" was learned centuries ago.

The Breaks for Freedom Were Coming Too Fast: The Cold War Required a Master Plan

The Maoist-led revolution in China in 1949 triggered an intense study by the U.S. State Department that culminated in National Security Council Directive 68 (NSC-68) being presented to President Truman on April 16, 1950. Although it was not signed until September 30, 1950 (as NSC-68/2), that document's master plan for the containment of those breaks for economic freedom (actually only an affirmation and expansion of the top secret policies of 1947: NSC-4, NSC-4A and NSC-10/2) officially became America's secret policy of covert and overt financial, economic, political, and military, warfare.[124]

Although the world was theoretically at peace, this directive called for increasing the U.S. arms budget by 350 percent ($13.5 billion to $46.5 billion). This was just under the $300 billion annual budget (1990 dollars) with which the United States fought the Cold War. U.S. economic and military power was being mustered to support the collapsed power structure of the former colonial empires and suppress those emerging nations' breaks for economic freedom.[125]

While admitting there was no military threat to the West, Dean Acheson's memoir, Present at the Creation, unwittingly exposes NSC-68 as the master plan for the Cold War. It was a Grand Strategy for increasing the military budget of the United States by 350 percent to wage a worldwide covert war (or overt when necessary-Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, and the containment of Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and the destabilization and fragmentation of Yugoslavia) to suppress the rising tide of social and economic revolutions which were intent on breaking the dependency imposed upon them and turning their resources to the care of their own people.

There are just and necessary covert operations such as those by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during World War II. However OSS officers, the primary designers of post-World War II covert actions, and other Western intelligence services had been carrying out major covert operations to suppress the freedom of colonial nations well before the CIA was officially established. Very large military efforts to reinstall or maintain the old ruling elite were undertaken in Greece and China before World War II ended. Tens of thousands of valiant patriots who had held two-thirds of Greece out of Hitler's control were slaughtered. At the same time, with U.S. support, Vietnam was being reclaimed by the French, who killed 20,000 in Haiphong harbor alone and killed another million Indochinese before America took over the suppression of that break for economic freedom to slaughter another 3 million in the 1960s and 1970s. Britain retained her claim to Malaysia by slaughtering thousands. With American and British support, the Dutch slaughtered 150,000 Indonesians in an unsuccessful attempt to reclaim those resource-rich islands (using Dutch SS battalions which had been fighting for Hitler just weeks earlier). In one bombardment alone, over 90,000 were killed in the suppression of Madagascar's bid for freedom. There were many more, even if smaller, suppressions of the worldwide break for economic freedom.

Those OSS Cold Warriors were the primary staffers of the CIA when it was first established in 1947 to carry out future covert operations.[126]It was the experiences of these Cold Warriors in suppressing breaks for economic freedom (called insurgencies) between 1945 and 1950 that were codified into NSC-68. All earlier Security Council directives were on a learning curve leading to that April 1950 master plan to suppress these breaks for economic freedom and all later directives were supplemental to it. Most "insurgency" suppressions succeeded in maintaining the dependent status of the crucial "countryside" with its precious natural resources. But China, with one-fifth of the world's people, was a big loss that reverberated in the boardrooms of major corporations, and protective government policies were called for. Managers-of-state knew well that if other revolutions were successful, the imperial center would lose those cheap resources and profitable markets.

To maintain control, it was necessary to suppress and/or contain both the rising socialist centers of capital to the East and the emerging countries that might take the rhetoric of democracy and freedom seriously and either form an independent trading bloc of nonaligned nations or tie their economies to other emerging centers of capital. But with the world at peace the planners admitted there was no way to get even $1 billion a year out of either Congress or the American people, and NSC-68 called for an additional $33 billion per year ($200 billion in 1990 dollars).[127]

Note these simultaneous occurrences of major events:

All these mutually supporting events made their debut in the first half of 1950 and all within two months of the finalization of NSC-68, the master plan for the Cold War.[128]None of this was accidental or incidental; it was all part of the Grand Strategy of managers-of-state.

While McCarthyism-painting any remotely progressive person or philosophy as communist-was in full swing, it was political, social, and career suicide to be objective and intellectually balanced. During those forty years of suppression of dissenting opinion, the CIA paid compliant professors to write twenty-five to thirty fraudulent books a year. Right-wing think tanks were set up to produce thousands of books based on those original planted stories. Tens of thousands of CIA articles based on, and in turn supporting, the fraudulent books, were planted in the media around the world (700 CIA articles were planted worldwide during the overthrow and assassination of Allende in Chile and the fact that reporters were being provided news scoops in exchange for publication of fraudulent articles tell us that some of the leading columnists in the world were planting this nonsense).

For over two generations social scientists have used, and are still using, those fraudulent books and articles as the foundation of their research. Such books have been the official textbooks for forty years. And the intelligence agencies, corporate think tanks, and state departments of all powerful nations were busy writing the same distorted history. With intellectual figures and skillful writers throughout the Western world supported and coordinated in this massive falsification of history, as the above quote on the Congress for Cultural Freedom demonstrates, only academics and intellectuals on the fringe knew the difference and even they could only be very unsure of what was real and what was not real. When it was learned that the CIA had supported the printing of these thousands of books, sincere academics sued for the titles of those fraudulent books to be revealed. But the Supreme Court ruled that this would expose CIA methods and endanger the national security.[129]

But the imperial nations of Europe also had to worry about the loss of their heartland by the vote. Post-World War II France and Italy were especially vulnerable to ballot box revolutions. Massive CIA funds were only barely able to avert that loss. It required more than money. As the partisans were the only effective political force left in Italy and many were communist, Allied troops released Mafia leaders from Mussolini's prisons, armed them, and placed them in charge of the cities as they marched up the Italian peninsula.[130]

Control of the Italian elections was still in question and, besides other methods of funding conservative Italian politicians, the CIA was deeply involved in the super-secret P2 lodge, the primary group trying to prevent that election disaster for the Western world's managers-of-state. The only way to obtain a seat of power in the Italian government was through that secret lodge. The risk of an overthrow by the vote was still high. For further belief system protection, the Bologna railway bombing which killed 84 people and injured 150, and other fatal bombings in Italy were strategies-of-tension planned and carried out by the CIA-controlled Italian intelligence services and, right by the covert action training manuals that have since surfaced, blamed on the "left." The explosives from that bombing and others were traced to some of the 139 buried weapons and explosives caches for the CIA's "Operation Gladio," under which those bombings were carried out. In Italy alone, the right wing terrorist bombings blamed on the left numbered in the thousands, killing several hundred and injuring many more.[131]

Operation Gladio was the Italian segment of the CIA's "Operation Statewatch" operating, with the support of other intelligence services, throughout Western Europe. Operation Statewatch was, of course, worldwide, the same dirty tricks were used by the CIA to discredit socialist elements in Japan.[132]Though the cover story when exposed in September 1990 was that these were "stay behind forces" in case the Soviet Union overran those countries, they were really there to control elections though a "strategy-of-tension" and, if that failed, to take back by force (through assassinations, black ops, and military coups) any government lost by the vote. Their permanent in-place numbers ranged from 400 operatives in Belgium to 2,000 in Italy. The super-secret covert operation's bombings and blaming of the left in other European countries within the Western alliance were done more sensibly, where and when no one would be hurt. The purpose of strategies-of-tension worldwide, creating terrorist acts and blaming the left, was, of course, to distort what the so-called left (primarily labor leaders) stood for to deny them any wins in the elections.

In 1997-98, there were exposures of South Africa's secret service using and planting Soviet weapons in its own strategy-of-tension to blame the massacres of blacks on the African National Congress. Such framing of opponents is an old political trick and planting counterfeit letters, documents, and weapons (black ops) is standard operating procedure for intelligence services. The CIA's Mighty Wurlitzer had this all down to a science. Those bombings and other violence blamed on the left within Europe and throughout the world were to provide a base for those planted articles.

In fact, both actual and staged covert violence is used worldwide by imperial-centers-of-capital to control elections both on the periphery and within their centers of empire. In dozens of CIA staged attacks by supposed Communist Huks in the Philippines, the hamlets were rescued by General Magsasay. The general was popularized as a hero and became America's elected puppet.[133] Strategies-of-tension are standard operating procedures of most, if not all, power structures. The famed march of the Black Shirts in Italy that supposedly put Mussolini in power was staged three days after Italy's power brokers handed to him the reins of power. That showing of unrest was to consolidate that power. Germany's famous Reichstag fire was several months after Hitler had been given power in a secret January meeting of German power brokers. Again the purpose was to consolidate that power by gaining followers through creating the belief of an imminent threat to social tranquility and security. In chapter seven we will be addressing how the Korean War was just such a strategy-of-tension staged to provide the loyalty base to support the expense and worldwide violence of the Cold War.

Impositions of Belief Systems through Corporate-Funded Think Tanks

We would do well to study the Covert Action Quarterly, put out by disaffected CIA agents. They recognized that corporate America was imposing social-control-belief-systems upon the world under the cloak of false scholarship, the same way America's enemy belief system during the Cold War had been manufactured and also the way Britain imposed the Adam Smith free trade beliefs 200 years ago. This is of such importance we obtained permission to quote Sally Covington at length. Note how her description of corporate control of information (creation of public opinion) is a close parallel to the post-World War II imposition by intelligence services of these same belief systems:

Spearheading the assault has been a core group of 12 conservative foundations: the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, the Carthage Foundation, the Charles G. Koch, David H. Koch and Claude R. Lambe charitable foundations, the Phillip M. McKenna Foundation, The JM Foundation, The John M. Olin Foundation, the Henry Salvatori Foundation, the Sarah Scaife Foundation, and the Smith Richardson Foundation....From 1992-94, they awarded $300 million in grants, and targeted $210 million to support a wide array of projects and institutions....The 12 have mounted an impressively coherent and concerted effort to shape public policy by undermining-and ultimately redirecting-what they regard as the institutional strongholds of modern American liberalism: academia, Congress, the judiciary, executive branch agencies, major media, religious institutions, and philanthropy itself. They channeled some $80 million to right-wing policy institutions actively promoting an anti-government unregulated market agenda. Another $80 million supported conservative scholars and academic programs, with $27 million targeted to recruit and train the next generation of right-wing leaders in conservative legal principles, free-market economics, political journalism and policy analysis. And $41.5 million was invested to build a conservative media apparatus, support pro-market legal organizations, fund state-level think tanks and advocacy organizations, and mobilize new philanthropic resources for conservative policy change ... Conservative foundations also provided $2,734,263 to four right-of-center magazines between 1990 and 1993, including The National Interest, The Public Interest, The New Criterion, and The American Spectator.[134]

With millions of dollars in funding at their fingertips, conservative institutions have taken

the political offensive on key social, economic, and regulatory policy issues....These institutions have effectively repositioned the boundaries of national policy discussion, redefining key concepts, molding public opinion, and pushing for a variety of specific policy reforms....These groups flood the media with hundreds of opinion editorials. Their top staff appears as political pundits and policy experts on dozens of television and radio shows across the country. And their lobbyists work the legislative arenas, distributing policy proposals, briefing papers, and position statements....[The American Enterprise Institute has] ghost writers for scholars to produce op-ed articles that are sent to the one hundred and one cooperating newspapers-three pieces every two weeks.'... The Hoover Institution's public affairs office ... links to 900 media centers across the U.S. and abroad. The Reason Foundation ... had 359 television and radio appearances in 1995 and more than 1,500 citations in national newspapers and magazines. The Manhatten Institute has held more than 600 forums or briefings for journalists and policy makers on multiple public policy issues and concerns, from tort reform to federal welfare policy....The Free Congress Foundation, in addition to its National Empowerment Television, is publishing NetNewsNow, a broadcast fax letter sent around the country to more than 400 radio producers and news editors.[135]

As Karen Rothmyer wrote sixteen years ago:

'Layer upon layer of seminars, studies, conferences, and interviews [can] do much to push along, if not create, the issues, which then become the national agenda of debate....By multiplying the authorities to whom the media are prepared to give friendly hearing, [conservative donors] have helped to create an illusion of diversity where none exists. The result could be an increasing number of one-sided debates in which the challengers are far outnumbered, if indeed they are heard at all.'... [The Heartland Institute] introduced Policy Fax ... a revolutionary public policy fax-on-demand research service that enables you to receive, by fax, the full text of thousands of documents from more than one hundred of the nation's leading think tanks, publications, and trade associations. Policy Fax is easy to use and it's free for elected officials and journalists....The American Legislative Exchange Council and the newer State Policy Network provide technical assistance, develop model legislation, and report about communications activities and conferences. ALEC, well funded by private foundations and corporate contributors, is a powerful and growing membership organization, with almost 26,000 state legislators-more than one-third of the nation's total. The organization, which has a staff of 30, responds to 700 information requests each month, and has developed more than 150 pieces of model legislation ranging from education to tax policy. It maintains legislative task forces on every important state policy issue, including education, health care, tax and fiscal policy, and criminal justice.[136]

The above quote is describing today's refined methods of information control. Early histories of all developing democracies show power brokers buying up or establishing the major information systems, at that time primarily newspapers. That control has moved from one center of power to other centers of power as those media are sold or taken over, but they are never released to seriously inform the masses, the occasional, or even many, exposs notwithstanding. The foundation belief systems that maintain unequal internal and external trades are not only not challenged, they are heavily promoted.

In late February 2002, the establishment within the Pentagon of an Office of Strategic Influence (office of disinformation) to plant fraudulent and distorted news in the world press to control Muslim opinion worldwide was exposed. The media took the tack that this was something new. But it is not new. Every intelligence service (CIA, Naval Intelligence, Army intelligence, etc.) and state department of major countries practices it, corporations practice it to control public opinion, corporations and politicians practice it to control who will be elected and what laws will be written, and corporations practice it to gain sales. To protect wealth and power, control of public opinion through massive funds spent on intelligence services and highly corrupt, at the least highly biased, think tanks is the primary feature of "democratic" societies.

The corporate-owned media is there to push the Social Control corporate belief systems. Scholars have easy access to the massive literature put out by corporate-funded think tanks. Everyone everywhere feels he or she has independence of thought, but when analyzed most of their information and foundation beliefs come from corporate funded think tanks or less than straightforward government sources and, with little other information available, researchers stay safely inside the permitted parameters of debate. For those who dare to write or speak truly independent thought, the market is extremely limited. These heavily funded schools of thought become the belief systems of society (its economic religion) and, as both individuals and society can only function under one belief system, all other beliefs are crowded to the margins.

Those imposed belief systems protecting the powerful surface again and again. (As no society has yet become totally free, a deeper study will find it in all societies throughout history.) Except as a social-control-belief-system, there was no need to latch onto silly theories such as was done in the Great Depression: putting labor to work digging holes and filling them back up again, shooting pigs and cattle to lower the supply of pork and beef and recreate that market, and protecting crop prices by paying farmers for not growing anything.

Having spent massive effort to suppress Henry George's philosophies, which were spreading rapidly when first introduced, the managers-of-state knew well that this sensible economic philosophy was there.[137] However, this philosophy gave equality and rights to all, which meant that unearned wealth had to be given up, and the power brokers were not about to do that. For example: In the 1917 crisis that brought on the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, in an attempt to avoid total overthrow, the Russian managers-of-state (Kerensky in this case) offered to adopt the philosophies of America's Henry George. So they too knew this philosophy for full and equal rights were available and only reached for it in a last-ditch effort to avoid revolution. The Bolsheviks following the philosophy of Karl Marx were in no mood for compromise. They overthrew the provisional government, and took over. Now managers-of-state of the imperial-centers-of-capital had a new threatening belief system to deal with.

The Residual Effects of McCarthyism in the Halls of Academia and the Media

After World War II, nations throughout the world were taking control of their destiny. The old imperial-centers-of-capital had shattered each other's power, and the former colonial world was breaking free. The only wealth left in the world to suppress those breaks for freedom was in America.

The United States had two Grand Strategy choices: join the newly emerging nations in their break for freedom or join the old imperial-centers-of-capital in suppressing their freedom. The behind-the-scenes cultural and financial ties to Western Christian, white Europe were too great; America chose the old imperial nations and the historical record shows that this choice was chiseled in stone decades before.

For 130 years British intelligence services, the British Diplomatic Service, and British industry financed university systems and think tanks to teach neo-mercantilist free trade. U.S. intelligence services, State Department, and multinational corporations took over that role as the British Empire crumbled. Thus most universities and opinion makers in Europe and America preached that social-control-belief-system for the next fifty-five years (1945 to the present) and still do in the 21st century.

Within the old imperial-centers-of-capital, for that 180-year period, it was not possible to remain in a position of influence in either government or academia if one promoted anything other than some form of the social-control-belief-systems protecting that society. The crisis of the Great Depression created openings for other belief systems but World War II and the following Cold War re-imposed those protective beliefs. While McCarthyism was in full swing-painting any progressive philosophy as Communist-it was political, social, and career suicide to be objective and intellectually balanced.

Where European professors had for centuries been the carriers of the Social Control paradigms of imperialism and there was little else taught, there were conscientious professors in the American universities who knew the history of Americans gaining their economic freedom, who knew that most other colonial nations were still under the sway of imperial-centers-of-capital, and who recognized the potential of those former colonies joining the brotherhood of free nations. These idealistic and conscientious professors were recognized authorities whose views would be freely expressed through the media. To take over the imperial mantle and suppress the post-World War II breaks for freedom, it was necessary for the United States to strip these potential carriers of truth and reality out of the universities.

McCarthyism was no aberration of one individual as recorded in history. Senator Joseph McCarthy was the chosen point man for the House Un-American Activities Committee (whose members themselves were point men for the wealthy and powerful and the first echelon managers-of-state) to strip those professors out of the universities and their thoughts out of the media. Hundreds of professors and thousands of others lost their jobs as both the lower-level managers-of-state and the masses (most congresspersons without security clearances, the universities, the media, and the lay intellectual) were being conditioned to keep their heads down, their mouths shut, and their typewriters silent.[138]

The major universities' rehabilitation of the reputation of these persecuted souls when the Cold War was won (most were dead then) proves even the power brokers of the universities-the very people sworn to provide an honest education to the nation and the world-knew that students, the masses, and the world were being fed a controlled and fraudulent picture of the world. Professors took leaves of absence and were paid to organize the CIA and then returned to their ivory towers.[139] By not telling their students that they had established a massive propaganda organization that was to put all others to shame, which would have been an honest education, they, and all who knew but remained silent, became propagandists just as surely as those were within the massive intelligence system they had set up.

The 1975-76 Church Committee and Pike Committee hearings exposed many of these black ops. The thousands of fraudulent books financed by intelligence services (all imperial centers were doing it), the tens of thousands of articles planted all over the world (intelligence agencies of all imperial centers were also doing this, including making movies and newsreels that the fifties and sixties generation watched with almost every movie), the massive literature put out by the subsidized think tanks and subsidized academics, the thousands of books written by sincere academics but sourcing all that fraudulent literature being passed off as honest scholarly work, as well as the massive fiction (novels and movies) written to take advantage of the created hysteria, those covertly created works were the rhetorical thunder of the Cold War.

After thirty to forty years of this hysteria, when honest and sober works were dismissed as the works of radicals, misguided souls, and conspiracy theorists, only a few on the fringes of academia understood how deeply they were involved in suppressing truth through parroting these carefully created belief systems. The truth can be found only through intense research and dedication and few have the time, money, or desire to do that. Thus, although the claim is made that it is long dead, the legacy of McCarthyism and the orthodoxy thus created still rules the halls of academia, the media, and the masses.

By Not Fully Informing the Public, the News Media Trapped Themselves

We have documented how the CIA, with their worldwide "Mighty Wurlitzer" and with the support of other intelligence agencies, controlled the Western world's information systems. Those who were educated under those conditions that were far from free thought eventually moved into positions of power and, within the limitations of their power and misinterpretation of free trade, were likely sincere in their efforts to develop the world through free trade. Those who would question free trade as practiced by neo-mercantilists were kept silenced, at first by McCarthyism's threat to their career and later, as all such people were seen as allied with an enemy, by peer pressure and lack of financial or identity rewards. As opposed to the certainty of being cast into oblivion if one tried to stand up against the propaganda, those who staked their careers on promoting the cosmopolitan philosophy received high financial and career (identity) rewards.

Thus the Brer Rabbit/don't throw me in the brier patch[g], neo-mercantilist, free trade scam became firmly entrenched. To the extent we believe our own social-control-belief-system and force these policies on the world, the scam will seriously retard world development, will continually ratchet down the wages of labor in the developed world, could collapse the world economy into a depression, and could again lay the foundations for war. (It does not have to either. If the financial monopolists and military are strong enough, it could freeze the world into the mold of extremely rich and extremely poor with the resources and labors of the impoverished supporting the lifestyle of the rich and a powerful military maintaining security for that system of theft of the wealth of the weak.)

While enjoying the followers and income they gained by publishing the social-control-belief-system of Cold War hype created by the power structure, the media trapped themselves. Once the nation was fully propagandized, readers and advertisers now controlled the media. With the masses believing enemies were planning to attack them at any moment and intelligence services spending hundreds of millions of dollars continually reinforcing that belief, any media that would dare present a rationalization outside the Cold War belief system would lose both their readers and advertisers in droves.

The market then worked its magic. With the world programmed that there were enemies lurking behind every bush, the occasional scholarly and honest critique could not be sold, while paranoid and hysterical writings, and the total frauds we have been addressing, sold millions.

Control of Information within the Imperial Centers Required Destabilizing Internal Political Groups

Just as imperial powers did not dare let any nation in the world escape from their belief system and become a beacon for other oppressed nations, they did not dare let the voices of the oppressed within the imperial centers nor the voice of those aware of suppression on the periphery be heard. Preventing awakened political voices from being heard required destabilizing internal political groups in all allied countries. In the United States, this was the purpose first of the House Un-American Activities Committee and McCarthyism and then of the FBI's Operation COINTELPRO (a replay of the post-World War I shattering of the forming solid labor front: the destruction of the Wobblies [International Workers of the World, IWW]). CHAOS, Cable Splicer, and Garden Plot were American internal destabilizations by military intelligence services carried out in cooperation with the FBI. This synchronized efforts of political police became urgent when over 500 periodicals critical of the Vietnam War, with a peak circulation of 7 million, sprang up.[140]

Through agent provocateurs, counterfeited letters, planted narcotics, false arrests, poison-pen letters, malicious articles planted in the press, blacklisting from jobs, harassment, electronic surveillance, burglary, mail tampering, and other internal strategies of terrorist tension, hundreds of budding political groupings were destabilized. In March 1998, the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and Young Socialist Alliance (YSA) won a fifteen-year legal battle against the FBI for decades of spying, harassment, and disruptions as just described. During that trial, these two groups-out of hundreds that were spied upon and/or destabilized-proved that the FBI had conducted 20,000 days of wiretaps and 12,000 days of listening "bugs" between 1943 and 1963 as well as 208 burglaries of offices and homes of their members with the photographing or theft of 9,864 private documents.[141]These are only two groups out of hundreds and only events that have been proven.

The American government was ordered to pay Fred Hampton's family $3 million when it was proven in court that his December 4, 1969 death in Chicago was a political assassination resulting from these suppressions. After 27 years in a California prison, Geronimo Pratt was ordered released and he collected $4.5 million when, though other excuses were used by the courts, he essentially proved that his arraignment and conviction for murder was a conspiracy between the FBI and the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office. The FBI had him under surveillance and knew he was 400 miles away at the time of the murder and the prosecutor knew that his witnesses were government informers with no credibility. Proving these conspiracies required some of the longest court cases in American history. As few such targeted people had either resources or determined people behind them, many more innocent people had their lives destroyed by what can only properly be called America's political police. Surely some of those totally innocent political prisoners died in prison and others are still there.[142]

If the largest and most politically motivated of these hundreds of groups had been allowed to form and grow, some of their leaders would eventually have been elected to local, state, and national governments. From that position, they would have had platforms to speak to the masses. Belief systems not in their best interest, as had been accepted in the past when there were no other choices, are much harder to impose upon a population under conditions of true freedom. The independent views on national and international events that would have been carried by the media when addressed by those new leaders, as opposed to the desired view of managers-of-state as they suppressed both internal dissent and the world's break for freedom, were the real threat. For exercising their democratic rights, these innocent people were systematically monitored, systematically destabilized, some were sent to prison, and their voices were never heard except by a few on the margins. Silencing those who stood up on the periphery of empire was a much harder job than silencing dissenting voices within the imperial center but-at least until the financial and economic meltdowns on the periphery-this too was, to a large extent, accomplished.

No profound thought which ran counter to the mainstream was permitted on either side of the opposing Cold War blocs, rhetoric about a free, open, and unbiased educational system in the "democratic" West notwithstanding. Classics of alternative thought were taught in the universities, but they were taught negatively and the massive propaganda of the CIA's "Mighty Wurlitzer," the weeding out of professors with independent thought through loyalty oaths and the threat of-or even actual-job loss, and the pressure of propagandized peers assured these philosophies would only be taught as dictatorial, violent, and/or impractical. The violence of the Cold War was to suppress the implementation of any competing philosophies so that no such example could exist to gain the allegiance of intellectuals, opinion makers, and voters.

The fact that the masses had attained voting rights dictated that their perception of the world must be controlled. These gross fabrications and crafted propaganda provided a firm foundation for the social-control-belief-systems of the Cold War and are now not only a major part of Western literature and history; they are Western literature and history. After the Cold War was won, major universities officially restored the good name of those who were forced out of academia and had their careers destroyed, this proved-of course-that the innocence of these accused and shattered people was well understood all along by the information gatekeepers. One would think the organs of social power (academia, politics, and the media) would now be recovering from that suppression of free speech and free thought, but, as the next chapter demonstrates, the parroting of the creations of intelligence service wordsmiths by all media during the destabilization and shattering of Yugoslavia gave no indication of either true free speech or true free thought.

Understanding the suppressions and oppressions of the Cold War is essential to understanding this book's primary theses: inequalities in world trade impoverish naturally wealthy regions, and imperial center belief systems are imposed to protect that system of laying claim to impoverished nation's wealth. Wealth and power are based on inequalities of both external and internal trade, the rules of which have been fine-tuned for centuries. For the powerful to permit the establishment of equality in trades would be to immediately lose their massive accumulations of unearned wealth and their power. Thus, the suppressions and oppressions of the Cold War are not an aberration. Whenever the threat to wealth and power is high, such suppressions and oppressions are the norm.

With all political, economic, financial, and military options blocked, the defeated, dependent, and impoverished world has no options outside of what the imperial centers have to offer. All plans of the developing world fail (the specific purpose of the covert actions of the Cold War), realization takes hold that the only opportunities are those offered by the powerful, the imposed (re-imposed) belief system takes hold, and the old order is restored. This is an exact description of the Cold War and the re-imposition of Adam Smith free trade philosophies and neo-liberal economics upon the world that we will be addressing in depth.

We have heard of our freedom, rights, and free press all our life and to believe America had, and has, a propaganda system far more extensive than most empires in history is hard to accept. But, after reading this book, read Mark Lane's Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK, L. Fletcher Prouty's JFK: The CIA, Vietnam And The Plot to Kill Kennedy , and Philip Willan's Puppet Masters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy . In Prouty's solidly researched and authoritative books (he was one of three who wrote the how-to book on U.S. covert actions) one will learn how staged violence (a strategy-of-tension) is used worldwide to control the beliefs of voters so as to control elections both on the periphery of empire and within the imperial centers. When a strategy-of-tension fails and a power structure is faced with loss of power, actual violence is used-including assassinations of leaders of nations.

Public knowledge of each violent event is controlled through carefully crafted press releases before, during, and following those implementations of policies of state. This is done so effectively that the FBI knew the identities of President Kennedy's assassins but-because the plotters obviously reached high into government circles and the entire government would come crashing down-they did not dare move on this information.[h] Members of the House Select Committee on Assassinations sat on this same information when they learned those same names from the same source in 1978; and America's vaunted institutions-the Justice Department, the media, the universities, and its political leaders-failed to inform the public even when everything the FBI and the House Select Committee knew was proven in a court of law when one of the assassins sued the Spotlight for publishing his name as one of those professional killers.)

Those assassins were named March/February 1985, verdict February 5, 1985, in the courtroom of Judge James W. Kehoe, United States District Court, Miami, Florida, case number 80-1121-civ-JWK, E Howard Hunt [of Watergate fame], plaintiff, versus Liberty Lobby, defendant. It was actually CIA agent E Howard Hunt's lawyers that irretrievably damaged their own client by asking specifically who these assassins were and what the witness knew of their activities and whereabouts as they organized and carried out the assassination. Claudia Furiati came up with the same names as the assassins when she was allowed access to Cuban intelligence files to write her book, ZR Rifle: the Plot to Kill Kennedy and Castro. Part of the CIA's plans to overthrow the Cuban government included control of information reaching the people as that overthrow unfolded and all was in place for history to be written that this externally coached and financed invasion was an internal Cuban revolution. When the Cuban overthrow collapsed at the Bay of Pigs and President Kennedy refused to rescue this covert operation with American air power, the Cubans of Miami and their CIA handlers were furious. To them President Kennedy was a traitor to what they viewed was a fight for the survival of the world as they knew it. Being hardened to orchestrating death squad activity worldwide, these angry agents, certainly under orders from higher up, assassinated President Kennedy just as they had orchestrated the assassination of thousands of others worldwide so the imperial nations would not lose control of the world. The same propaganda machinery that was in place to control the world's belief of how the overthrow of the Cuban government was an internal event was turned to controlling the world's belief in who assassinated President Kennedy.

We address the suppression of the truth of this assassination in some depth only because believing that such social-control-belief-systems are in place in an acclaimed "free country" is so hard to believe. By reading this book and those listed above one can understand how and why the so-called "free press" failed to inform its readers and listeners. Mark Lane explains how, when the above trial concluded, the jury foreman, Leslie Armstrong, "simply, eloquently, and painstakingly" explained to waiting print, radio, and television reporters that "the evidence was clear ... the CIA had killed President Kennedy, Hunt had been a part of it, and the evidence, so painstakingly presented, should now be examined by the relevant institutions of the United States Government so that those responsible for the assassinations might be brought to justice."[143]

Lane points out that a Miami television station that evening reported only that Hunt had lost a libel case and had ignored her eloquent description of the historic importance of this case. The Jury foreman challenged that station on their reporting. It was then accurately reported by that one station but was ignored by all other media, local and national. In contrast, Hunt's winning of the first trial where none of this explosive testimony was given and which was of no historic importance to anyone was widely reported. By studying the above books and this book, one will begin to understand how social-control-belief-systems are imposed upon an acclaimed "free press" and academia who then, largely unwittingly, impose it upon a population whose government, educational institutions, and press claim to be honest recorders of history.[i]

Writing History to Protect Wealth and Power

History is written by the powerful to protect their wealth and power. (Those carefully crafted press releases and carefully crafted recordings of events are the writing of history.) Because all people are trained to be just (a society could survive no other way), destabilizing other societies so as to lay claim to, or retain claim to, their wealth requires creating the belief system of the imperial center that targeted and oppressed people are enemies and/or incompetents.

To justify colonizing the world, confiscating much of the world's wealth, enslaving entire populations to produce that wealth, and actually wiping entire civilizations off the face of the earth in the process, it was necessary to develop a belief system that those in these besieged societies were not really people (they had no soul). When it was no longer possible to ignore the fact that they were people, for continued control of their resources, it was necessary to create the belief system that the indigenous people were incompetent, that they could not run their own affairs (a belief system only now being slowly set aside), and that the technologically advanced and "civilized" society was there to help (a primary aspect of today's belief system).

When the blatant injustices of mercantilist imperialism became too embarrassing, a belief system was imposed that mercantilism had been abandoned and true free trade was in place. In reality the same wealth confiscation went on, deeply buried within complex systems of monopolies and unequal trade hiding under the cover of free trade. Many explanations were given for wars between the imperial nations when there was really one common thread: "Who will control resources and trade and the wealth produced through inequalities in trade?" All this is proven by the inequalities of trade siphoning the world's wealth to imperial-centers-of-capital today just as they did when the secret of plunder by trade was learned centuries ago. The battles over the world's wealth have only kept hiding behind different belief systems each time the secrets of laying claim to the wealth of others' have been exposed.

Thus it is that students of statecraft and foreign policy are openly taught that what the people believe is happening is only a control mechanism created through a public education campaign (a polite way of saying propaganda), and those planning the Grand Strategies of state are "defensive realists" or "offensive realists" dealing with the "realities" of the "real" world. Trained to be "realists," students of statecraft are taught to care for their nation's "national interest." Students with the right connections, along with many more who moved up through the corporate, political, and military world, move into the inner sanctums of government, take a pledge of secrecy, and become the managers-of-state we have been discussing throughout this treatise. None of the managers-of-state are trained to care for interests of the impoverished world, while those who rose through the corporate, political, and military ranks are deeply ingrained with the need to care for the corporate world and the imperial center. For managers-of-state to care for those on the periphery of empire when the confiscation of the natural wealth and labors of that periphery are creating the wealth and power of the imperial center is an oxymoron.

While powerful nations are controlling other people's resources or denying the use of those resources to competing centers of capital, it is necessary to create a belief system that people targeted for covert or overt attack, economically or militarily, are a serious threat to "national security." Of course, the ones under threat are the already impoverished, whose natural wealth and labor production are being siphoned to the powerful developed imperial-centers-of-capital. The belief systems that imperial nations are under military and terrorist threat and these "good" nations are supporting "good" people on the periphery of empire is accomplished through loudly proclaiming this through the now lower-key, but still operational, "Mighty Wurlitzer." Those imposed belief systems establish the parameters of national and international debate and the real problem, monopolies and unequal trade, is not a "politically correct" or "economically correct" subject of discussion.

The low-key approach is used only when there is no serious threat. "No serious threat" means the subject of injustices of imperial centers and unequal trades is far outside the permitted parameters of debate. However, when the threat of loss of power and wealth is high, meaning imperial injustices and unequal trades are being placed on the table for discussion on the periphery of empire, Western cultures engage in massive propaganda and covert destabilizations (both internally and externally), which is exactly what we are taught is done in dictatorships.

After the threat of a breakout to freedom is past, only an occasional violent covert operation is necessary. Populations have been so thoroughly indoctrinated by the propaganda of the Cold War-and there is so little else recorded in articles, books, or history-that the imposed belief system is firmly in place in the social mind. As both the survival and wealth of most citizens of the imperial centers are based on the system as structured, most are firmly within the aura of a society's protective belief system. Extending that belief system to the periphery and maintaining it is what these covert and overt destabilizations are all about.

The line of control, through controlling belief systems, lies above the university system and the media and below the National Security Council, the State Department, the intelligence services, the few in Congress with security clearances, and other inner-sanctum managers-of-state. Whereas the elite and managers-of-state know well the social-control-belief-systems of the masses exist-after all, they created them-the masses, and this includes the university system and the media, and elected officials outside the inner sanctums of government, are unaware they are being controlled through strategies-of-tension so their governments can do throughout the world just what they are warning others wish to do to them: subvert their governments and steal their wealth.

Once a crisis is past and the powerful imperial-centers-of-capital are in one of their relatively peaceful stages, the belief system of the masses requires only minor propaganda pushes to keep it rolling. However, it still requires considerable effort by the powerful nations to strengthen the belief system within the social institutions of dependent nations whose wealth is siphoned away through following that very philosophy. These people are looking for answers to their poverty and proving to them that their well-being depends upon accepting the current inequalities in trade is a never-ending job.

It would be a difficult task for a professor or journalist to step back and realize that his or her entire education was a social-control-belief-system that had been imposed upon society and had been in place for generations, that had been re-imposed by extreme violence, and that these fundamental beliefs had little relevance to reality. Those professors and journalists would instinctively and instantly realize that all the rewards (money, career advancement, acceptance of one's work for publication, acceptance by one's peers, and appointments to government posts) were stacked totally in favor of parroting the social-control-belief-systems.

After observing those who did stand up being totally ostracized by their peers and denied any of the above described rewards for their achievements, only an insignificant few will stand up. However, after the crumbling of the tiger economies on the periphery, this is changing. Those who question those unjust and unequal policies and provide different answers are starting to find an audience. The threat of just such embarrassing subjects and philosophies that have been pushed to the margins developing an audience is uppermost in the minds of managers-of-state. The increasing number of citizen protests movements standing up against today's corporate globalization and resulting in state oppression and violent crackdowns is that process in action.[j]

While ignoring all other claims as propaganda, Western news (and that of much of the rest of the world) comes directly from the CIA's "Mighty Wurlitzer" and other intelligence services' presentation of reality. Intelligence agencies' wordsmiths restructure every world event to the desired reality. It is this reality that ambassadors and other government agencies hand to reporters. Lower-level officials have to parrot the same words they hear from higher officials. With the many years required to reach such a position of authority, every government official has been through this many times and knows what he or she is expected to say. To deviate from the proper script, no matter how much reality demands it, would incur immediate dismissal. Any accredited reporter seriously challenging these creations at a presidential news conference or any other high-level news briefing would quickly lose accreditation to attend such briefings. To seriously address these creations as the propaganda they are would immediately place one outside the loop, cost most their jobs, and be instant political suicide. That peer pressure is at the heart of primary belief systems, so little else is heard or read. Thus, children can quickly understand what adults find incomprehensible. Children are honest and have nothing to lose while adults have everything to lose and following the crowd can quickly quiet their conscience. No one challenges them there but they would face big challenges if they tried to peel aside any major portion of the social-control-belief-systems and expose the truth.

Suppression of the Freedom of Others through Denial of Their Economic Rights Is the Untold Secret of "National Security" and the "National Interest"

Three tenets of capitalism are: pay the lowest possible price, charge all the market will bear, and give nothing to anybody. That is great philosophy for power brokers with a monopoly on capital, technology, markets, and military might. It takes no deep thought to realize that these tenets of classical economic philosophy were implanted by an earlier power structure to maximize its claims to the wealth of others. Aristocracy and financial aristocracy, through control of all positions of power in the church and universities, had full control of what was taught. The Social Control, belief systems taught were philosophical tenets chosen for the protection of that society and/or its power structure, not philosophical tenets chosen by free thought to maximize the well-being of all within that society-let alone the welfare of the rest of the world's citizens whose natural wealth and labors were confiscated to create the wealth of the imperial-centers-of-capital. As the inequalities of world trade are now structured, caring for the imperial centers not only ignores the well-being of the periphery but actually is the primary cause of their poverty.

Early capital formation began with European city-states monopolizing technology through militarily destroying the primitive industries of the countryside and forcing those villagers to sell their raw produce to the city and purchase back from them the manufactured products. The Europeans battled for nearly 800 years over who would own industrial capital, who would have the right to labor with those tools of production, and who would control trade. Each center of capital required a "countryside" to provide it with raw materials and markets. Each center of capital controlled its "countryside" as best it could to maintain a low price for raw material "imports" and a high price for manufactured "exports."

This control of trade developed during the pre-industrial era and was not only essential for the security of city-states, states, nations, and finally empires, but was the foundation for the accumulation of great personal wealth and power within those mini-empires and empires. The suppression of freedom, both political and economic, in the dependent colonial nations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was specifically the result of the need for imperial-centers-of-capital to control resources crucial for their survival, wealth, and power.

This is the meaning of the terms "national security" and "national interest" which we hear so much; economic security is normally the subject, not military security. Thus, the true meaning of "national security" of powerful nations is the control of an economic empire of subject states. The strategies through which this is carried out become "national security secrets." It is the trumpeting of peace, freedom, justice, rights, democracy, and majority rule that requires that those Grand Strategies for controlling other people and their resources be kept secret. What is practiced is the total antithesis of what is preached.

All of us have known all our life that the managers-of-state have "secrets" and we all accept this as normal and right. The "we" includes the lower echelons of government, the media, the university system, and even members of Congress not privy to these secrets who have not taken an oath of secrecy. Only the inner sanctums of the national government (the National Security Council, the State Department, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the intelligence agencies, and members of congress with security clearances [the primarily nameless and faceless "they" deciding our destiny]) know what those secrets are and they are sworn to secrecy. Those employed in diplomacy, intelligence agencies, and the military carrying out those secret tasks are also sworn to secrecy and all face severe penalties for violating that oath.

We all understand that dictatorships have secrets because they do vile and unjust things that they do not want known. But what could be so secret in democratic societies where governments are supposed to be employees of the people? Quite simply, most wealthy societies have very few resources and even the resource-wealthy American consumer society is dependent upon resources and markets throughout the world. The secret that cannot be told is that the wealth of an imperial center requires controlling the "countryside" to provide cheap resources: the minerals, timber, fuel, and fibers necessary for a comfortable society. Increasingly, that dependency extends to products manufactured with cheap labor on the periphery. Thus the terms "national security" and "national interest" we hear so much about and we accept those spoken words as all we are entitled to know.

There is only one reason "we the people" are not entitled to know what those policies "for our national security" and "in our national interest" are: if known, they would create greater insecurity to the imperial centers for they lay claim to what are properly the rights of, people in the "countryside" providing those crucial resources and cheap labor. Such claims seem normal and right only when considering the rights of those within a nation or alliance of nations whose well-being depend upon the resources and cheap labors of their "countryside." As soon as one steps outside the borders of an alliance and into the world of other stakeholders in the world economy being dispossessed of their resources and production of their labors, it becomes obvious that these dispossessions are neither just nor right.

The secret of the more powerful nations is that their managers-of-state do not practice what they preach. Instead of permitting democracy to function on the periphery of empire (their countryside), they must subtly and secretly control those weaker nations in order to control those crucial resources and markets. We have been addressing in depth this simple secret of the inner sanctums of governments. It is the reason for the great wealth of resource-poor, but powerful, nations and the impoverishment of resource-rich, but weak, nations. No wonder it has to be kept secret even from most members of Congress, academics, and the media.

Control of other nations has functioned for so many centuries under so many excuses that most, even in the inner sanctums of government, are unaware of this fundamental secret: the imperial-centers-of-capital are claiming a large share of what rightfully belongs to the impoverished on the periphery. This truth has been hidden all these centuries through the strategies-of-tension which demonize other leaders and other nations to justify the violence required to maintain the wealth of the world moving towards the imperial centers. Other nations have been demonized so much, and for so long, that we take it as a given that they are inherently bad and we do not look beyond those created belief systems to the struggles of those peripheral countries for their own freedom to control their own destiny.

Why should we? The struggles of those nations to gain, or maintain, their independence is described to us as the violence of dictators slaughtering their own people and the most threatening political consolidations are described to us as plans to rule the world. Those struggles for control of their own destiny, democratic revolutions (misnamed through these strategies-of-tension as insurgencies), thus become the very proof that other leaders and other nations are those demons. After all, we are taught that it is they who depend upon us and it is they who should emulate us, not that it is we who are dependent upon their resources and markets.

There is a germ of truth in all we are told. Historically, the resources of the losers of these economic wars, financial wars, covert wars, and hard-fought open wars enriched the lives of those who won and, through the example of Yugoslavia, we will be demonstrating that those wars are still very profitable to the powerful even as they further impoverish the already weak. But social scientists recognize the enormous waste of the current systems of production and distribution, and that the wars they engender are wasting a large share of those precious resources as well as causing rapid destruction and pollution of the waters, soils, and ecosystems. Although believing it is always other nations that are the aggressor, not their nation, most people understand that, if this continues, powerful nations battling-or the wastes of mass production and mass consumption-may eventually destroy the world as we know it. To avoid that, we need only restructure from the violence of neo-mercantilism (metamorphosed to corporate imperialism) monopolizing the world's resources into all the world's people sharing those resources through democratic-cooperative capitalism. Once that choice is made, all need for national secrets disappears and the goals of all-world peace, sustainable development, and elimination of poverty-can be attained, and all while rebuilding and protecting the world's soils and ecosystems.

Professors and Intellectuals Are Conscientious and Sincere

Professors are conscientious and sincerely want to teach true history, honest economics, and honest political science. However, when a society is under extreme threat, such as the managers-of-state of the imperial-centers-of-capital were all through the Cold War, honest expressions of threatening thoughts are not permitted in the mainstream of these soft sciences. Honest analysis can be found at the margins but those are effectively "voices in the wilderness." Quality professors and intellectuals who could, and did, challenge the Cold War belief systems being imposed upon the world as a cover for those suppressions of economic freedom were stripped out of the universities and the media or were silenced.[144] Instinctively understanding this process, and with the exception of a few forced to the margins, professors who are aware keep their head down.

Due to peer pressure, desire for advancement, and even job insecurity, most progressive professors in the university still will not challenge the official line. If anyone has any doubts about residual McCarthyism and peer pressure controlling what is researched and taught in our universities, consider the statement of an assistant professor who was approached by another professor to help research the concepts in this book. His reply that "It would be suicidal for him to research such concepts" exposes the limits to freedom of political and economic thought within academia.[k]

French economic students understood that economic theory as taught had no relation to reality and in the fall of 2000 they protested and academic administrators agreed to address what heretofore had been "controversial" subjects. Twenty-seven PhD economic students at the University of Cambridge, UK, signed a similar, but milder, letter of protest in 2001 which has not yet been resolved as of this writing.

Now that the Cold War is over, opposing thought is surfacing. However those thoughts are only a whisper against the thunder of social-control-belief-systems that have been carefully cultivated by the managers-of-state of powerful nations for fifty years. Biased and compliant historians of the winners of the hot wars-wars over who will set the rules of unequal trade and thus who will be wealthy and powerful-wrote this history without an understanding of the real causes of those wars. We will be addressing in depth how these were battles over who will have the advantage of unequal trades.

Providing a Beacon for Intellectuals throughout the World

Though one would never know it listening to the belief system rhetoric, the efficiencies of centralized planning were crucial to the West's post-World War II success. The Cold War military buildup, the economic rebuilding of the old shattered imperial-centers-of-capital (Japan and West Europe), and the rise of new allied centers of capital (Taiwan and South Korea) to prevent expansion of socialism were all a part of the centralized plans of corporate capitalism.

The question of whether socialism and central planning will work or will not work has been thoroughly established. The only two functioning economies during the Great Depression were Germany's and the Soviet Union's, both were centrally planned(Germany's only because it had to usurp the rhetoric of National Socialism or be forced by its politically aware labor movement to accept Soviet socialism), and both were building industrial capital faster than had ever been built before.

Because it is viable and thus threatening, socialism has always faced the full military might of capitalism's propaganda. If it were not viable, there would be no need to demonize it. Destabilizations have prevented socialist centers of capital from becoming established, and its efficiencies have been utilized only by dictators attacking socialism (Hitler and WWII) and utilized by socialism when defending against not only those attacks but against the ring of steel put around them by the entire allied developed centers of capital after that war.

While the well-funded think tanks were pouring out the rhetoric against central planning, covert-and occasionally overt-destabilizations (and the enormous military expenditures of emerging nations defending against the threat of military overthrow) were preventing the Soviet Union, Cuba, all Africa and Latin America, and many other nations from putting their economies together. (The hoped-for co-opting of China as she develops is still ongoing.) The reason for these destabilizations is obvious: an efficient social system providing a better standard of living for its people becomes a beacon drawing the loyalty of intellectuals and the impoverished worldwide.

The rapid restructuring of the German economy, which successfully cared for its citizens during the depths of the Great Depression even as they were being denied equality in world trade, caught the attention of the world. During the crisis of that depression, German "Bunds" were forming in every corner of the globe. Both the rapidly developing Soviet form of socialism and Germany's rapidly developing Fascist (corporate) socialism were drawing intellectual followers away from neo-liberal capitalism that was collapsing under the weight of the Great Depression.

German fascist National Socialism was little more than Social Darwinist white supremacist ideology protecting the power of German corporate wealth, primarily against British corporate wealth and power. The success of German Fascism would have meant the loss to Britain of a large part of their all-important countryside and the cheap resources that were the foundation for British wealth and power.

The successful rule of labor in the Soviet Union would have meant the industrialization of other nations by that new socialist center of capital and the loss of the countryside for corporate imperialism. As neo-liberal capitalism shrank-or even collapsed as the countryside shrank-either capitalism would have had to become efficient, such as we demonstrate democratic-cooperative capitalism can, or socialism would have assumed power worldwide.

Maintaining both power and wealth of established imperial powers required that both socialism and Fascist National Socialism be contained and both were contained by military force: World War II contained Germany and the Cold War (on top of the severe Soviet losses in World War II) both contained the Soviet Union and suppressed others' break for freedom worldwide.

Even though most of those attempting breaks for freedom in the former colonial world looked to the United States as their political and economic model, they had the universal danger of popular leaders who were not puppets, leaders who would turn those resources to sustaining their own people. Empires whose economies depended upon the resources of those countries for raw material for their industries would be faced with a disaster of the first order if their countryside gained its economic freedom. Those breaks for freedom had to be suppressed.

Who Are the Powerful?

So who are the powerful? It could, unwittingly, be you or me. We all have some power. Only it is, through imposition of belief systems, turned to the protection of what we would never tolerate if we ever knew: the suppression of other peoples' freedom and confiscation of their wealth. After all, most of us unwittingly provided full support as corporate imperialism suppressed breaks for freedom all over the world.

The CIA could not have suppressed those worldwide breaks for freedom without the support of American citizens. The fact that most did not know their government was avoiding democratic choice worldwide through an offensive policy only outlines the imposed belief systems which protect this system of claiming the wealth of others through inequalities of trade. Fully believing they live in a true democracy with a free press and educational institutions of free thought, most Americans find incomprehensible any suggestion that a belief system has been imposed upon them.

Only a small number of the wealthy or moderately wealthy pay any attention to imposing belief systems on the masses but they do provide generous financial support to those who do. The wealthy recognize that it is this belief system that is the source of, and the protection of, their wealth. It is likewise with the middle class. They recognize their living is tied to the current arteries of commerce and thus easily believe their security is under threat. They are totally unaware that much of this wealth comes from their society imposing inequalities of trade on weaker societies and perpetuating others' impoverishment. Thus, a propagandized population provides the power base for managers-of-state to inflict such violence upon defenseless people, at times even upon themselves.

As in all indoctrinated societies, we each parrot what propaganda wordsmiths have carefully crafted for us. Thus, again as in all indoctrinated societies, we keep indoctrinating each other with these distortions of reality. As the need to belong to a group is paramount and belief systems define a political group, peer pressure keeps a society locked within a belief system.

Who Are the Violent and Powerful?

A study of CIA power brokers and others deeply involved in leadership positions pushing the Cold War will expose that they are powerful corporate lawyers, have developed close ties to the powerful while being educated in elite educational institutions, have other close ties to wealth, or are themselves extremely wealthy. Thus when Guatemala's elected government was overthrown and a dictator imposed to protect United Fruit, "the head of the CIA, General Walter Bedell Smith, joined the board of the United Fruit Company, while United Fruit's president, Allen Dulles, became CIA director."[145] Kermit Roosevelt, former Vice President of Gulf Oil, oversaw the destabilization of Iran.

John F. and Allen Dulles, both long-term power brokers in the State Department and CIA, came from entrenched wealth and were also corporate lawyers for others of the world's wealthy. Probably no one else except William Casey, another CIA director and leading corporate lawyer, was in on the planning for the covert actions of the Cold War throughout the CIA's first forty-five years more than they were.

After being pushed into the disastrous Cuban Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961, President John F. Kennedy fired CIA director Allen Dulles, who he felt had misled him into that debacle. President Kennedy was learning fast and he was going to shut down the Vietnam War and lead America to be the peaceful nation it claimed to be. Military power is always the final arbiter between competitive societies and ever since World War II only America's military power protected the imperial-centers-of-capital from the loss of control of world resources and control of trade, the source of their wealth and power. There did not have to be any rocket scientists among the managers-of-state and the corporate powers behind them to know that Kennedy's altruism would cost them dearly. President Kennedy was assassinated and a member of the old-boy CIA network, the recently fired Allen Dulles and surely one who knew exactly who the real plotters and assassins were, decided what evidence was to be presented to the Warren Commission in what most of the world is satisfied was a cover-up of the assassination of an American president by the hard right of American government and intelligence services.

America's social fabric would have been shredded by such revelations so those disturbing facts were not addressed by the mainstream media, were never pursued by any law enforcement or legal institution, and remain essentially unknown to the American people. If the truth about Kennedy's assassination had been vigorously pursued by either major law enforcement authorities or the mainstream media, America could have become what it claims to be, a government of, for, and by the people.

Where most presidents are firmly under the control of a power structure, Kennedy was not. He was so popular and was so thoroughly trusted by the American people he would have had their full support if he had embarked on a policy of peace. The hundreds of corporate think tanks would not have dared to continue trumpeting for war. A policy of peace would have been so eminently sensible that their followers would have defected from the scare mongers en masse if such a peaceful policy by such a popular president were attacked.

If peace had been permitted to break out through such a courageous act by a popular American president, the massive suppressions all over the world would have come to an end. Once a policy of true peace had been put into effect, a president would not even have the option of changing his mind if he wanted to. The cat would have been out of the bag, too many think tanks currently outside the permitted parameters of debate would regain their voice for peace and would be cranking out supporting literature, and a return to a Cold War could be accomplished only by the same method this Cold War was established, instigating a real war as in the Korean War described below.

Without the covert wars and overt wars of imperial-centers-of-capital, the world would have broken free, the world's resources would no longer have been available to the industrialized world for a fraction of their value, and that would be a loss to corporate imperialists that could not be permitted. The CIA is only an arm of presidential policy when presidential policy is corporate policy. When presidential policy threatens corporate policy, a rare event, a president must figure out how to control the corporate-connected old-boy network of the CIA.

The violent and powerful who carry out corporate policies, such as described in chapters seven and eight, are good citizens, good neighbors, good husbands, and good parents who kiss their children when they put them to bed. But their loyalty is to their wealth or the wealthy who put them in power. Even when considering what is right for the weaker in their country, they do not expand their view of rights to include all people.

To justify their oppression, it was once convenient to tell one another that colonial natives had no souls, and thus were not people. The rights of others are still carefully defined so that they cannot be acknowledged, even when people perform sincerely. To do so, to redefine rights in the broadest sense and act accordingly, would not only shatter everything most of us have believed in and everything the power brokers have done in our name-it would mean a total repudiation of the philosophy the imperial nations were functioning under.

Damage Control

If one has any doubts as to how thorough propaganda and thought control are, consider the 730 American airmen shot down or crashed as they were flying sabotage and assassination teams into Byelorussia and the Ukraine in the heart of the Soviet Union and photographing Soviet territory, as addressed in chapter seven.[146]

Much effort went into "damage control" to tone down that explosive story. In later documentaries and feature articles the admission of over 730 airmen lost over the Soviet Union was downgraded to 130, but, knowing they had been deceived once, each documentary noted the story might be much bigger. A few years after the exposure of the air assaults on the Soviet Union, a military spokesman in a news interview said that, "Americans would be surprised if they knew how many airmen had been lost over the Soviet Union and China." A documentary on the subject of the downed pilots showed their routes over the Baltic Sea and claimed that all planes veered off before going over Soviet territory. That falsification of history-telling a part of the story as the full story and ignoring the major story of over ten thousand flights into the heart of the Soviet Union-required both a careful selection of facts by the Pentagon and a cooperative producer. Even as Western citizens were being brought to near hysteria that they were under dire threat of attack, there were no planes from either Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union flying towards the West with teams trained for sabotage and assassination, or any other kind of destabilization.

Imprinted in everyone's mind is that these overflights were necessary because the Soviet Union was a military threat and the intelligence to be gathered was crucial. But the facts-that the Soviet Union was devastated by World War II, that it wanted and desperately sought peace, and that sabotage teams were being trained and dropped deep into their territory to hide among their ethnic and religious cousins and sabotage the economy-discredit that cover story. No politician of substantial stature seriously believed the Soviets were going to attack anyone.

The real threat was to the Soviet Union, not from it. The massive destruction of the Soviet Union's infrastructure and slaughter of 20 million people (adjusted later to 27 million but announced by Stalin in 1946 as 7 million) in World War II were well known. The West knew that not only was the Soviet Union's infrastructure and economy in no shape to be a military threat, but the necessary propaganda campaign to condition the long-suffering Soviet people to undertake a military offensive against their recent allies who were militarily far superior, would be impossible. (The Soviets could not legally propagandize for war. Most of the world will be surprised to learn it was against Soviet law to demonize another society.)

Damage control was exercised again when CNN and Time magazine spent two years documenting over twenty instances of the use of nerve gas by Americans in Vietnam. The story (Operation Tailwind)-aired and printed in July 1998-was withdrawn, senior editors who stood by their story were fired, others demoted or chastised, and the story was successfully suppressed. Note how that surfacing of true history was quickly erased from history. Such revelations are so damaging to the imposed belief system that protects corporate imperialism, they cannot be permitted to stand.

The intelligence game is "demonize one's enemies." For that demonization to succeed, it is crucial that all analysis of moral transgressions and arrogant ignoring of international law (actually thousands of acts of war) by the imperial-centers-of-capital be suppressed. That such acts of war could be carried out with relative impunity highlights the immense power of the imperial centers and the weakness of those nations the masses of the West were being told were going to militarily attack them.

Whenever the powerful are challenged, the longstanding tradition of the owners of newspapers backing their editors and editors backing their reporters (at least we have always been told it is so) is blown out the window. Witness reporter Ray Bonner's banishment to obscurity by the New York Times for exposing the El Mozote massacre by U.S.-trained soldiers in El Salvador; Robert Parry's departure from Newsweek after "path-breaking work on the Iran-Contra scandal"; The San Jose Mercury News retraction of its exposure of CIA involvement in drug trafficking and subsequent resignation of its star reporter, Gary Webb; and James Fallows' disappearance from U.S. News & World Report for trying to insert a little reality into that publication. This author was especially appreciative of James Fallows' writings and had wondered how his broad and sensible view of the world could ever be tolerated at U.S. News. It wasn't.

And if all we have documented to this point is not enough to prove that the West was never under threat of a military attack, that the managers-of-state knew this well, and that there was no need for intelligence agencies to alert the West about any such attack, consider this: Immediately after World War II, U.S. intelligence co-opted Switzerland's Crypto-Ag (and other encryption companies) to obtain the codes to the most secure encryption machines sold to nations all over the world. With these codes, U.S. intelligence officials read the most secret messages of most nations, friend and foe, as easily as they might read the morning newspaper.[l] The National Security Agency's ECHELON listens in on almost every conversation in the world. Its computers are keyed to detect key words and phrases and divert all communications with those words to be looked at. Important communication sources and destinations had all communications checked. American intelligence services and managers-of-state not only knew well there was no attack imminent, they knew how weak and defenseless against the full power of the west these besieged people really were.

Assassinations and covert actions were the least of what interested the West as they read other nations' mail; they were responsible for most of them anyway. The economic plans of those nations were their primary interest. Playing the high-stakes diplomatic poker game of international trade with a mirror behind everyone else's back gave the United States an insurmountable advantage in trade negotiations. They knew the most intimate secrets of nonaligned nations attempting to ally together to develop their industries and internal economies.

Few of those nations had any intention of allying their economies with the Soviet Union. Although a nation embargoed by the West a nation would be forced to trade with the Soviet Union, their goal was freedom to control their resources and economies and trade with any nation they chose. (By 1998, seventy countries-66 percent of the people on earth-were under some form of American embargo or sanction.[147] Control of trade hides behind a rhetorical cover of human rights abuses. If a nation is recalcitrant, those human rights abuses provide the legitimacy for sanctions.)

Though hundreds of billions of dollars were spent to destabilize emerging nations, funds can no longer be found to rebuild these shattered nations (actually it took over 50 years and trillions of dollars). Without development funds and without access to technology and markets, the weak are again relegated to providing cheap commodities and labor to imperial-centers-of-capital. However, if the threat of loss of the countryside to the imperial centers returns, massive funds will again be available for development of those countries crucial for allies and equally massive funds for destabilization of all others.

The current collapsed periphery countries (as of 2002) present a unique problem. If they do not regain their financial and economic health, Adam Smith free trade will be in serious question. If collapse of the imperial centers can be avoided, expect modest adjustments of past policies to bring back some health to the periphery, but do not expect the robust growth rates that once were common.

But it is possible to again make those economies secure. Democratic-cooperative capitalism, as this book is proposing, increases economic efficiency equal to the invention of money, the printing press, and electricity. That capitalism, as structured, is efficient is only a belief imposed, through the educational system, for centuries to protect wealth and power. In this chapter, we have demonstrated that, since the wealth of the university trustees and financially supportive alumni are at stake, almost all professorial rewards go to those who protect the system, and the sanctions are heavy against those who would take an opposing stand, this protection of wealth and power is unwittingly provided by the university system yet today.

[f] The official tally of war dead during that timespan is 21 million. Perhaps more than the 12 million to 15 million were also victims of the Cold War but the covert actions were buried so deep they have not been detected.

[g] Referring to the children's classic when the captured Brer Rabbit begged not to be thrown into the briar patch. His captor promptly threw him in the briar patch and he escaped.

[h] Even though in charge of governments or departments of governments, these are just mortal men. Not even President Franklin D Roosevelt dared do anything when General Smedley Butler exposed that an organization composed of some of the wealthiest people in the United States had approached him to lead an overthrow of the American government and set up a fascist government as was being done all over Europe at the time. Besides, as this book documents, there were a lot more skeletons in the U.S. government's closet than President Kennedy's assassination. If that assassination had been truly investigated, many powerful people would have been destroyed. Those powerful people knew where the skeletons of any who dared attack them were, it is unlikely these people would go down without taking their attackers with them, and America's Fascist covert violence all over the world and control of the media worldwide would likely have come to the surface. Both the CIA and the FBI knew all about each others' illegal activities addressed above. So not only was there already an unwritten agreement that neither would expose the other but each must cooperate to suppress any evidence of the other's illegal activities. And, as the many books we cited on that assassination document, that suppression of evidence and placing all blame elsewhere was the order of the day for all—the FBI, the CIA, the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and the entire U.S. government. Against such a phalanx of power, the media dutifully fell in line. Though, as we are documenting, the American people had accepted without question many false realities imposed upon them, to their credit, the majority believed the assassination was a conspiracy. But the propaganda apparatus had accomplished its purpose, through the mechanisms of collective denial, citizens looked everywhere for those conspirators except where they were, right in the top leadership of the American government, the U.S. military, and the CIA.

[i] Smith, J.W., Why, chapter 3. For clear illumination as to who killed President Kennedy, first read the solidly authoritative Mark Lane, Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? (New York: Thunder Mouth Press, 1991); L. Fletcher Prouty, JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, And the Plot to Kill Kennedy (New York: Carol Publishing, 1992); and Claudia Furiati, ZR Rifle: The Plot to Kill Kennedy and Castro (Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1994). For a view of how the CIA used terrorism and assassinations all over the world, including Europe, to protect the old imperial-centers-of-capital, read Philip Willan's Puppet Masters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy. After reading those four books, one can spot the solid evidence in the following books, pass over where they go down wrong trails, and track how the powerful accomplished the massive cover-up of Kennedy's true killers: Jim Garrison, On the Trail of the Assassins (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1988); Walt Brown, Treachery in Dallas (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1995); Harrison Edward Livingston, Killing the Truth: Deceit and Deception in the JFK Case (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1993); Jim Marrs, Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989); Anthony Summers, Conspiracy (New York: Paragon House, 1989). Those books and a documentary, "The Men Who Killed Kennedy," made in Britain for release on the twenty-fifth anniversary of Kennedy's assassination (but self-censored by the American media) was not shown in the U.S. until 11 years later, leave little doubt it was a political assassination (New Video Group, 250 Park Ave. S., NY, NY 10010, 212-532-3392, catalog number AAE-21201 through 21206, or A&E Home Video, Box Hv1, 233 E. 45th St, NY, NY 10017). See also Oliver Stone's outstanding move JFK, Prouty is the man X in that movie which would have been better yet, actually complete and unchallengeable, with the information of Mark Lane and Claudia Furiati. As we have pointed out, the American government would have fallen if the major media had alerted its citizens that key leaders of the American government, the U.S. military, and the CIA assassinated their president. Perhaps not even Oliver Stone had the courage to alert the masses that the true Assassins of President Kennedy were known and had been named in a court of law. We now understand a little better how a society's deepest secrets are kept from the masses. Knowledge of such truths mean revolutions and a revolution may destroy society as we know it.

[j] All this was before the September 11th terrorist attack on America. Legislation has been passed since that attack which restricts freedom of expression far more than any laws during the Cold War and peer pressure keeps the media and most people silent or approving.

[k] However, we do have sincere and idealistic professors who recognize the Cold War is over. This book is being used in university classrooms, even as the primary textbook.

[l] Wayne Madsen, "Crypto Ag: The NSA's Trojan Whore?" Covert Action Quarterly (Winter 1998), pp. 36-42; William Blum, Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Super Power (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), chapter 21. The CIA uses many methods for plausible denial. For example: Inter-Arms was established by ex-career CIA agent Samuel Cummings was supposedly separated from the CIA to establish the world's largest small arms dealership, Inter-Arms Incorporated, a plausibly deniable conduit for weapons shipments anywhere in the world. With an established arms conduit for covert actions, and a record of serial numbers of other sales so intelligence agencies could keep track of who was using those arms, one would be in deep denial if they thought Cummings was really independent of the CIA.


[116] J.W. Smith, WHY US?: The Deeper History Behind The September 2001 Terrorist Attack On America (Bloomington, Indiana: 1stBooks Library, 2002), chapter 3.

[117] Peter Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy (London: Collier Macmillan Publishers), dustjacket; Frances Stoner Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York: The Free Press, 1999).

[118] Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 1-3, 197.

[119] Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 1-3, 37, 60-63, 68, 71, 91, 101-39, 142, 150-51, 166, 201, 206, 245, 294-99, 353-58, 382, 403-403, 409-411, 420, more author's names were listed on the dustjacket; Angus MacKenzie, Secrets: The CIA's War at Home (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), pp. 2, 29, 40, 61-72, 185; See also, Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy.

[120] The history of America's state terrorism worldwide is deeply hidden and most records have been destroyed. (Witness Bamford's exposure on how General Lemnitzer destroyed the records on the Pentagon's plans for staging an attack on America, which included American deaths, to create an excuse to over throw Fidel Castro of Cuba.) The following books provide a good view of that history: James Bamford, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency (New York: Doubleday, 2001), especially pp. 70-75; John Quigley, The Ruses for War: American Interventionism Since World War II (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1992); L. Fletcher Prouty, The Secret Team (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973); Ralph McGehee, CIABASE (12-megabyte database on this history),, Box 5022, Herndon, VA 22070 (Caution: Run an Internet search for Ralph McGehee. The CIA is harassing him and may be sabotaging his database.); Peter Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy (London: Collier Macmillan, 1989); Michael T. Klare, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001); Michel Chossudovsky, The Globalization of Poverty: Impacts of IMF and World Bank Reforms (London: Zed Books, 1997); William Blum, Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Super Power (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), Killing Hope: U.S. Military Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995), and The CIA: A Forgotten History (London: Zed Press, 1986), pp. 127-28, 131, 185; Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Cost and Consequences of American Empire (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2000), p. 117; John Prados, The Presidents' Secret Wars (New York: William Morrow, 1986) and The President' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations From World War II Through thePersian Gulf War Warwick: Elephant Paperbacks, 1996); John Stockwell, The Praetorian Guard (Boston: South End Press, 1991), pp. 100-101; Ted Gup, The Book of Honor: Covert Lives and Classified Deaths at the CIA (New York: Doubleday, 2,000); Dan Jacobs, The Brutality of Nations (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987); P.V. Parakal, Secret Wars of the CIA (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1984); K. Nair, Devil and His Dart: How the CIA is Plotting in the Third World (New Delhi: Sterling, 1986); I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1952); Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York: Dell, 1980), chapter 6, especially pp. 152-56, also pp. 53-54, 62-63, 541-42; Ralph W. McGehee, Deadly Deceits (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1983), especially pp. 30, 58, 62, 189; Philip Agee and Louis Wolf, Dirty Work (London: Zed Press, 1978), especially p. 262; Loch .K. Johnson, America's Secret Power (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); David Wise, Thomas B. Ross, The Espionage Establishment (New York: Bantam Books, 1978), pp. 256, 257; H.B. Westerfield, Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal 1955-1992 (New Haven, CT. Yale University Press, 1995); Frank J. Donner, The Age of Surveillance: The Aims and Methods of America's Political Intelligence System (New York: Random House, 1981); John Prados, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush (New York: William Morrow, 1991); C.D. Ameringer, U.S. Foreign Intelligence (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990); J. Adams, Secret Armies (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987); T. Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979); Christopher Simpson, Blowback (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988); Ernest Volkman, Blaine Baggett, Secret Intelligence (New York: Doubleday, 1989); John Ranelagh, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987); Darrell Garwood, Under Cover: Thirty-Five Years of CIA Deception (New York: Grove Press Inc., 1985); Philip Agee, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (New York: Bantam Books, 1975); B. Hersh, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992); H. Rositzke, The CIA's Secret Operations (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977); E. Thomas, The Very Best Men Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995); D.S. Blaufarb, The Counterinsurgency Era: U.S. Doctrine and Performance 1950 to Present (New York: The Free Press, 1977); Michael T. Klare and P. Kornbluh, Low Intensity Warfare (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988); Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press (New York: Verso, 1998); S.E. Ambrose, Ike's Spies (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1981); Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1991); C. Andrew, For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (New York: HarperCollins Publishers 1995); H. Frazier, ed., Uncloaking the CIA (New York: The Free Press, 1978); Covert Action Information Bulletin, all issues; Counterspy, all issues. See also, Wendell Minnick, Spies and Provocateurs: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Persons Conducting Espionage and Covert Action, 1946-1991 (Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company,1992); John Loftus, The Belarus Secret (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982); Robin W. Winks, Cloak & Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961 (New York: Quill, 1987); D.F. Fleming, The Cold War and Its Origins (New York: Doubleday & Company, 1961); Nora Sayre, Running Time: Films of the Cold War (New York: Dial Press, 1980); Milton Mayer, They Thought They Were Free (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955).

To understand financial and economic warfare, read Peter Gowan, The Global Gamble: Washington's Faustian Bid for World Dominance (New York: verso, 1999); John Gray, False Dawn (New York: The Free Press, 1998); Robert A. Pastor, Ed., A Century's Journey: How the Great Powers Shape the World (New York: Basic Books, 1999); Anders Stephanson, Kennan and the Art of Foreign Policy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989); David Mayers, George Kennan and the Dilemmas of US Foreign Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); John R. Commons, Legal Foundations of Capitalism (New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 1995); John R. Commons, Institutional Economics (New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 1995);Carey B. Joynt and Percy E. Corbett, Theory and Reality in World Politics (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1978); Richard L. Rubenstein, The Age of Triage (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983); Peter Rodman, More Precious than Peace (New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1994); Angelo Codevilla, Informing Statecraft (New York: The Free Press, 1992); Arie E. David, The Strategy of Treaty Termination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975); Francis Neilson, How Diplomats Make War (San Francisco: Cobden Press); Jerry Fresia, Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and Other Illusions (Boston, South End Press), 1988.

For how the purpose of Western intelligence services are to control the belief systems of its citizens, and how much of the violence are covert operations to maintain this control, read L. Fletcher Prouty, JFK: The CIA, Vietnam, And the Plot to Kill Kennedy (New York: Carol Publishing, 1992) and Philip. Willan, Puppetmasters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy (London: Constable, 1991), provides a short description of how strategies-of-tension are used worldwide to control beliefs and thus control elections. Alex Carey's Taking the Risk out of Democracy; Corporate Propaganda versus Freedom and Liberty (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995) is an in-depth analysis of corporate propaganda pushed through the government, media, and academia throughout the 20th century.

For more scholarly studies on the media read: Richard O Curry, An Uncertain Future: Thought Control and Repression During the Reagan-Bush Era (Los Angeles: First Amendment Foundation, 1992); John Downing, Radical Media.(Boston: South End Press, 1984); Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon, 1988); Brooks Jackson, Honest Graft: Big Money and the American Political Process (New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1988); Naomi Klein, No Logo (New York: Random House, 1999); Martin A. Lee and Norman Solomon, Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in the news (New York: Carol Publishing, 1990);. Walter Lippman, Public Opinion (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1949); David W. Moore, The Super Pollsters: How they Measure and Manipulate Public Opinion in America (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1992); Michael Parenti, Inventing Reality: The Politics of the Mass Media (New York: St Martins's Press, 1986); John Stauber and Sheldon Ramption, Toxic Sludge is Good for You: Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).

[121] Ralph McGehee, Deadly Deceit. (New York: Sheridan Square Press, 1983), p. 192.

[122] McGehee,, check Wade Frazier's review of McGehee's Deadly Deceits. (Caution: McGehee is being harassed by the CIA and his website may be disabled.)

[123] United Nations Human Development Report, 1998.

[124] Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1987), pp. 373-379; the complete NSC-68 document can be found in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-50, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), chapter 7. See endnote 5.

[125] Acheson, Present at the Creation p. 377; Etzold and Gaddis, Containment, chapter 7.

[126] See endnote 5.

[127] Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 377. See also Stone, Hidden History, and Etzold and Gaddis, Containment.

[128] Stone, Hidden History; Coleman, Liberal Conspiracy; Saunders, The Cultural Cold War; Schrecker, No Ivory Tower; Etzold and Gaddis, Containment, chapter 7.

[129] See endnote 5 (Coleman's Liberal Conspiracy, especially Appendix D, lists almost 200 of these thought control books); Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, pp. 60, 63, 111, 140, 294-96, 105-106; see chapters 6, 7, and 9 of this work.

[130] See endnote 5.

[131] William Blum, Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Super Power (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 2000), chapter 4; Willan, Puppetmasters , chapters 1-3, pp. 146-159; Thomas, Very Best Men, pp. 65-66; David A.Yallop, In God's Name (New York: Bantam Books, 1984); Saunders, The Cultural Cold War, p. 143; See endnote 5. Gladio and Operation Statewatch was not uncovered until November 1990, too late for most books listed here, so one must go to McGehee's CIABASE for articles and later sources. See also Prouty, JFK, Chapter Three and Blum, Rogue State, Chapters Four and Sixteen.

[132] Chalmers Johnson, Blowback: The Cost and Consequences of American Empire (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2000), p. 117.

[133] See endnote 5, especially Prouty, JFK, Chapter Three and Blum, Rogue State, Chapter Four.

[134] Sally Covington, "Right Thinking, Big Grants, and Long Term Strategy: How Conservative Philanthropies and Think Tanks Transform U.S. Policy," Covert Action Quarterly (Winter 1998), pp. 6-16; see also Frances Stoner Saunders, The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters (New York: The Free Press, 1999), pp. 116, 135, 138-39, 142, 353-58, 409.

[135] Ibid.

[136] Ibid.

[137] Mason Gaffney, Fred Harrison, The Corruption of Economics (London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1994).

[138] Ellen Schrecker, No ivory tower: McCarthyism and the Universities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

[139] Robin W. Winks, Cloak and Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961 (New York: Quill, 1987); Saunders, The Cultural Cold War.

[140] Ibid; MacKenzie, Secrets, pp. 2, 4-6, 27, 29-41; Michael Parenti, History as Mystery (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2000), pp. 178, 183-89; Holly Sklar, Washington's War on Nicaragua (Boston: South End Press, 1988), p. 359; Rositzke, CIA's Secret Operations, pp. 218-20; Powers, Man Who Kept the Secrets, pp. 246-70, 364.

[141] Angus MacKenzie and David Weir, Secrets: The CIA's War at Home (University of California Press, 1997); M. Wesley Swearingen, FBI Secrets: An Agent's Expos (Boston: South End Press, 1995); Ward Churchhill, Cointelpro Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent (South End Press, 1990); Margaret Jayko, FBI on Trial: The Victory in the Socialist Workers Party Suit against Government Spying (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1989); Nelson Blackstock, Cointelpro: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom (New York: Anchor Foundation, 1988); Margaret Jayko, FBI on Trial: The Victory of the Socialist Workers Party Suit Against Government Spying (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1989): Nelson Blackstock, Cointelpro: The FBI's Secret War on Political Freedom (New York: Anchor Foundation, 1988); Ward Churchhill, Agents of Repression : The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement (Boston South End Press, 1989); Martin Luther King Jr, Philip S. Foner, editor, The Black Panthers Speak (New York: Da Capo Press, 1995); Hugh Pearson, The Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America (Readings, MA: Perseus Press, 1995); also see endnote 5.

[142] Blum, Rogue State, pp. 258-59. The full story of Post World War II suppression of dissent in America has not been written yet: Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecution under the Espionage and Sedition Acts (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 1994), covers that history before and after WWI.

[143] Lane, Plausible Denial, pp. 239-323, especially 320-22.

[144] Ellen Schrecker, No Ivory Tower (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

[145] Frederic F. Clairmont, The Rise and Fall of Economic Liberalism (Goa India: The Other India Press, 1996), pp. 7, 18, taken from Gerald Colby, DuPont: Behind the Nylon Curtain (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall), 1974.

[146] Michael Ross, "Yeltsin: POWs 'Summarily Executed'," The Spokesman Review (November 12, 1992): pp. B1, A10; Ernest Volkman, Blaine Baggett, Secret Intelligence (New York: Doubleday, 1989), p. 187; John Loftus, The Belarus Secret (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), chapters 5-8, pp. 109-10; William Blum, The CIA: A Forgotten History (London: Zed Books, 1986), chapters 6, 7, 8, 15, 17, especially p. 124; See endnote 5.

[147] Thomas Omestat, "Addicted to Sanctions," U.S. News & World Report, June 15, 1998, pp. 30-31.

Full Chapter and Sub-chapter titles:


Part I. External Trade: World Trade Structured for Security of Powerful Nations Entails Insecurity for Weak Nations

1. The Secret of Free Enterprise Capital Accumulation

2. The Violent Accumulation of Capital Is Firmly Rooted in History: Establishing the Underlying Principles of "Free Trade."

3. Imposing a Belief System under Which the Unwitting Willingly Hand Their Wealth to the Cunning

4. The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo Eliminated France as a Major Threat to British Trade

5. World Wars, Trade Wars: Battles over Who Decides the Rules of Unequal Trade

6. Suppressing Freedom of Thought in a Democracy

7. The World Breaking Free Frightened the Security Councils of Every Western Nation

8. Suppressing the Former Colonial World's Break for Economic Freedom

9. Creating Enemies for the Masses: The Inquisitions of the Middle Ages Were, and the Inquistions of Today Still Are, to Prevent Democratic Choice

Part II. External Trade: Capital Destroying Capital

10. The IMF/World Bank/GATT/NAFTA/

11. The IMF/World Bank/GATT/NAFTA/WTO/MAI/GATS/FTAA/Military Colossus: Emerging Corporate Mercantilism

12. IMF/World Bank/GATT/NAFTA/MAI/GATS/FTAA Structural Adjustments: Impoverishing Labor and, Eventually, Capital

13. Unequal Trades in Agriculture

14. Developing World Loans, Capital Flight, Debt Traps, and Forgiving Unjust Debt

15. The Economic Multiplier, Accumulating Capital through Capitalizing Values of Externally Produced Wealth

16. Japan's Post-World War II Defensive, Mercantilist, Economic Warfare Plan

17. Japanese/Chinese/Southeast Asian Post-World War II Development: An Accident of History and a Crisis for Western Imperial-Centers-of-Capital

18. Capital Destroying Capital

19. A New Hope for the World

Part III. External Trade: Sharing Technology with the World through Democratic-Cooperative Capitalism: The Route to World Peace and Prosperity

20. The Earth's Capacity to Sustain Developed Economies

21. The Political Structure of Sustainable World Development

22. Sustainable World Development: Equal Free Trade as Opposed to Unequal Free Trade

23. Sharing Technology with the World through Democratic-Cooperative Capitalism: A Grand Strategy for World Peace and Prosperity

Part IV. Internal Trade: Economic Rights for all People through Elimination of Subtle Monopolies

24. Regaining Rights to a Modern Commons through Eliminating the Subtle-Monopolization of Land

25. Regaining Rights to a Modern Commons through Eliminating the Subtle-Monopolization of Society's Tools (Technology)

26. Regaining Rights to a Modern Commons through Eliminating the Subtle-Monopolization of Money

27. Regaining Rights to a Modern Commons through Eliminating the Subtle-Monopolization of Information

28. Media to Empower the Powerless

Conclusion. A Grand Strategy for Cooperative Capitalism in the Twenty-First Century


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